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Table 1 Proteins identified as differentially expressed between MCF7Ecadvar and MCF7pcDNA3 cells

From: Characterization of the molecular changes associated with the overexpression of a novel epithelial cadherin splice variant mRNA in a breast cancer model using proteomics and bioinformatics approaches: identification of changes in cell metabolism and an increased expression of lactate dehydrogenase B

Protein name Protein symbol UniProt number Gene symbol Protein function Fold
l-lactate dehydrogenase B chain LDHB P07195 LDHB Catalysis of the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of NADH and NAD+ in a post-glycolysis process. 9.34
Aldose reductase ALDR P15121 AKR1B1 Catalysis of the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies. 4.49
Elongation factor 2 EF2 P13639 EEF2 Catalysis of the GTP-dependent ribosomal translocation step during translation elongation. Catalysis of the coordinated movement of the two tRNA molecules, the mRNA and conformational changes in the ribosome. 3.94
Heat shock protein HSP 90-beta HS90B P08238 HSP90AB1 Molecular chaperone. Promotion of the maturation, structural maintenance, and regulation of specific target proteins involved in cell cycle control and signal transduction. ATPase activity. Regulation of the transcription machinery at different levels: alteration of certain transcription factors levels in response to physiological cues, modulation of certain epigenetic modifiers, and participation in the eviction of histones from the promoter region of specific genes to turn on gene expression. 3.42
14-3-3 protein theta 1433 T P27348 YWHAQ Adapter protein. Regulation of a large spectrum of both general and specialized signaling pathways. Binding to a large number of partners, usually by recognition of a phosphoserine or phosphothreonine motif, which results in the modulation of the binding partner activity. 3.36
Vimentin VIME P08670 VIM Class-III intermediate filament found in diverse non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. Attached to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, either laterally or terminally. 3.05
Ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 1 UBA1 P22314 UBA1 Catalysis of the first step in ubiquitin conjugation to mark cellular proteins for degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Essential for the formation of radiation-induced foci, timely DNA repair and response to replication stress. 2.66
Protein disulfide-isomerase A3 PDIA3 P30101 PDIA3 Prevention of the formation of protein aggregates. Catalysis of the rearrangement of -S-S- bonds in proteins. Complexes of lectins and this protein mediate protein folding by promoting formation of disulfide bonds in their glycoprotein substrates. 2.14
Prelamin-A/C LMNA P02545 LMNA Component of the nuclear lamina, a fibrous layer on the nucleoplasmic side of the inner nuclear membrane, which provides a framework for the nuclear envelope. The structural integrity of the lamina is strictly controlled by the cell cycle. Lamin A and C are present in equal amounts in the lamina of mammals. Role in nuclear assembly, chromatin organization, nuclear membrane, and telomere dynamics. 2.00
Protein disulfide-isomerase A6 PDIA6 Q15084 PDIA6 Inhibition of misfolded proteins aggregation. Catalysis of the rearrangement of -S-S- bonds in proteins. 1.87
Downregulated
 Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 RABP2 P`29373 CRABP2 Transportation of retinoic acid to the nucleus. Regulation of the access of retinoic acid to the nuclear retinoic acid receptors. − 10.97
 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta 1433Z P63104 YWHAZ Idem 14-3-3 protein theta. − 5.21
 Triosephosphate isomerase TPIS P60174 TPI1 Role in the gluconeogenesis pathway. Participation in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate from glycerone phosphate. − 4.60
 Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase G6PD P11413 G6PD Catalysis of the rate-limiting step of the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway, a route for the dissimilation of carbohydrates besides glycolysis. Provision of reducing power (NADPH) and pentose phosphates for fatty acid/nucleic acid synthesis. − 4.54
 Heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha HS90A P07900 HSP90AA1 Idem Heat shock protein HSP 90-beta. − 4.32
 Gamma-glutamylcyclo transferase GGCT O75223 GGCT Catalysis of the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides. Role in glutathione homeostasis. Induction of the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria with resultant induction of apoptosis. − 4.20
 Peroxiredoxin-2 PRDX2 P32119 PRDX2 Thiol-specific peroxidase. Catalysis of the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides to water and alcohols, respectively. Role in cell protection against oxidative stress by detoxifying peroxides and as a sensor of hydrogen peroxide-mediated signaling events. Participation in the signaling cascades of growth factors and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by regulating the intracellular concentrations of H2O2. − 4.20
 Cathepsin D CATD P07339 CTSD Acid protease active in intracellular protein breakdown. Role in APP processing following cleavage and activation by ADAM30, which leads to APP degradation. − 3.57
 Annexin A4 ANXA4 P09525 ANXA4 Calcium/phospholipid-binding protein which promotes membrane fusion and is involved in exocytosis. − 3.56
 Protein S100-A11 S10AB P31949 S100A11 Promotion of keratinocytes differentiation and cornification. − 3.06
 Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 F16P1 P09467 FBP1 Hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in the presence of divalent cations. Rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis. Regulation of glucose sensing and insulin secretion of pancreatic beta-cells. Modulation of glycerol gluconeogenesis in liver. Regulator of appetite and adiposity. − 3.00
 Adenine phosphoribosyl transferase APT P07741 APRT Catalysis of a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis. Involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes AMP from adenine. − 2.71
 Transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase TERA P55072 VCP Participation in the fragmentation of Golgi stacks during mitosis and in their reassembly after mitosis. Role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced pre-emptive quality control, which attenuates the translocation of newly synthesized proteins into the ER and reroutes them to the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. Participation in DNA damage response. Role in the maturation of ubiquitin-containing autophagosomes and the clearance of ubiquitinated protein by autophagy. − 2.62
 Enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 1, mitochondrial ECI1 P42126 ECI1 Isomerization of 3-cis and trans double bonds into the 2-trans form in a range of enoyl-CoA species. Participation in the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway, which is part of lipid metabolism. − 2.54
 Actin, cytoplasmic 1 ACTB P60709 ACTB Role in various types of cell motility. Ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells. There are three main groups of actin isoforms in vertebrates. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins coexist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton and as mediators of internal cell motility. − 2.20
 Nucleoside diphosphate kinase B NDKB P22392 NME2 Role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. Negative regulation of Rho activity. Transcriptional activator of the MYC gene. Binding of DNA in a non-specifically way. Histidine protein kinase activity. − 2.11
 Chloride intracellular channel protein 1 CLIC1 O00299 CLIC1 Capacity of insertion into membranes and formation of chloride ion channels. Membrane insertion seems to be redox-regulated and may occur only under oxydizing conditions. Channel activity depends on the pH. Participation in cell cycle regulation. − 2.00
 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H HNRH1 P31943 HNRNPH1 Component of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) complexes which provide the substrate for the processing events that pre-mRNAs undergo before becoming functional, translatable mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Regulation of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. − 1.94
 Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 GRB2 P62993 GRB2 Adapter protein that provides a critical link between cell surface growth factor receptors and the Ras signaling pathway. − 1.94
 Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] SODC P00441 SOD1 Destruction of radicals which are normally produced within the cells and are toxic to biological systems. Zinc binding promotes dimerization and stabilizes the native form of the protein. − 1.85
 Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase G6PI P06744 GPI Glycolytic enzyme. Participation in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and glycerone phosphate from d-glucose. Mammalian GPI can also function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and an angiogenic factor that stimulates endothelial cell motility. −1.84
 Proteasome subunit alpha type-6 PSA6 P60900 PSMA6 Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, as well as proteins whose functions are no longer required. − 1.82
 Phosphoma nnomutase 2 PMM2 O15305 PMM2 Participation in the synthesis of the GDP-mannose and dolichol-phosphate-mannose required for a number of critical mannosyl transfer reactions. − 1.82
 Phospho glycerate mutase 1 PGAM1 P18669 PGAM1 Interconversion of 3- and 2-phosphoglycerate with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate as the primer of the reaction. − 1.82
 Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial GPDM P43304 GPD2 Participation in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes glycerone phosphate from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (anaerobic route). Calcium-binding enhance its activity. − 1.77
 Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A HS71A P0DMV8 HSPA1A Molecular chaperone. Participation in protection of the proteome from stress, folding and transport of newly synthesized polypeptides, activation of proteolysis of misfolded proteins, and formation and dissociation of protein complexes. ATPase activity. Regulation of centrosome integrity during mitosis. Negative regulation of the heat shock-induced HSF1 transcriptional activity during the attenuation and recovery phase period of the heat shock response. − 1.77
 Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1B HS71B P0DMV9 HSPA1B Molecular chaperone. Participation in protection of the proteome from stress, folding and transport of newly synthesized polypeptides, activation of proteolysis of misfolded proteins, and formation and dissociation of protein complexes. ATPase activity. Regulation of centrosome integrity during mitosis. − 1.77
 NADP-dependent malic enzyme MAOX P48163 ME1 Catalysis of the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate. Generation of NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. Link between the glycolytic and citric acid cycles. − 1.77
 6-phosphogluconolactonase 6PGL O95336 PGLS Hydrolysis of 6-phosphogluconolactone to 6-phosphogluconate. Participation in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes d-ribulose 5-phosphate from d-glucose 6-phosphate (oxidative stage of the pentose phosphate pathway). − 1.77
 Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 29 ERP29 P30040 ERP29 Role in the processing of secretory proteins within the ER, possibly by participating in the folding of proteins. − 1.76
 Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A ALDOA P04075 ALDOA Role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. It may also function as scaffolding protein. In vertebrates, three forms of this ubiquitous glycolytic enzyme are found: aldolase A in muscle, aldolase B in liver, and aldolase C in brain. − 1.76
 Proteasome subunit beta type-3 PSB3 P49720 PSMB3 Idem Proteasome subunit alpha type-6. − 1.75
 Stress-70 protein, mitochondrial GRP75 P38646 HSPA9 Chaperone. Role in mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) biogenesis. Regulation of erythropoiesis via stabilization of ISC assembly. It may play a role in the control of cell proliferation and cellular aging. − 1.72
 Peroxiredoxin-6 PRDX6 P30041 PRDX6 Thiol-specific peroxidase that catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides to water and alcohols, respectively. It also has phospholipase activity and can reduce short-chain organic, fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides. Role in cell protection against oxidative stress by detoxifying peroxides and in phospholipid homeostasis. − 1.70
 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleo protein F HNRPF P52597 HNRNPF Component of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) complexes which provide the substrate for the processing events that pre-mRNAs undergo before becoming functional, translatable mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Regulation of alternative splicing events. It binds G-rich sequences in pre-mRNAs and keeps target RNA in an unfolded state. − 1.70
 Actin, aortic smooth muscle ACTA P62736 ACTA2 Idem Actin, cytoplasmic 1. − 1.70
 Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 2 EMAL2 O95834 EML2 Tubulin binding protein. Inhibition of microtubule nucleation and growth, resulting in shorter microtubules. − 1.61
 Acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme ACPH P13798 APEH Catalysis of the hydrolysis of the N-terminal peptide bond of an N-acetylated peptide to generate an N-acetylated amino acid and a peptide with a free N-terminus. Preferentially cleavage of Ac-Ala, Ac-Met and Ac-Ser. − 1.57
 Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta GDIB P50395 GDI2 Regulation of the GDP/GTP exchange reaction of most Rab proteins by inhibiting the dissociation of GDP from them, and the subsequent binding of GTP to them. − 1.51
 Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase HPRT P00492 HPRT1 Conversion of guanine to guanosine monophosphate, and hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate. Transference of the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate onto the purine. Role in the generation of purine nucleotides through the purine salvage pathway. − 1.51
  1. List of the 50 proteins for which changes in the expression levels were found in MCF7Ecadvar cells relative to MCF7pcDNA3 using the 2D-DIGE and MS technologies. Proteins were listed in a descending order according to their fold change value (1.5-fold change cutoff, ANOVA ≤ 0.005). The protein name and symbol, the Uniprot number, the symbol of the gene that encodes each protein, and a brief description of the protein function are also included in the table. NADPH nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, GTP guanosine triphosphate, tRNA transfer RNA, GDP guanosine diphosphate, G-rich guanine-rich, N- amino, Ac- N-protected amino acids, Ala alanine, Met methionine, Ser serine