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Table 2 Mean serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHB) (monthly), urine ketone levels (daily), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG, daily)

From: Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme with “classic” 4:1 ketogenic diet total meal replacement

Subject no. Group no. Serum BHB (mmol/l) Urine ketone levels mg/dL FPG (mg/dL)
   Baseline KD mean (min, max) 1 Baseline KD mean (min, max)1 Baseline KD mean (min, max) 1
1 1 2.972 2.51 (1.3–4.6) 80 58.6 (15–160) 76 76.91 (49–163)
2 3 1 NA4 2.33 (1–3) 0 68.23 (0–80) 1033 101.35 (77–162)
3 1 0.07 3.66 (1.9–5.3) 0 64.3 (15–160) 73 85.82 (67–112)
4 1 0.95 3.14 (1.5–6.54) 0 63.66 (5–160) 80 79.86 (64–98)
5 2 NA 0.28 (0.1–0.5) 0 4.7 (0–15) 82 95.90 (73–108)
6 2 0.36 1.08 (0.06–2.11) 0 37.92 (5–80) 106 105.46 (44–174)
7 2 0.14 NA 0 NA 59 NA
8 2 NA 0.26 (0.08–0.4) 0 24.69 (5–40) 117 75.15 (65–94)
  1. All figures are given to the nearest two decimal points
  2. 1Minimum and maximum values during the whole study
  3. 2Patient had started KD previously on his own. BHOB was collected after screening
  4. 3Patient had type 2 diabetes on oral hypoglycemic medications Metformin 1500 mg/day, sulfonylurea 40 mg/day. He stopped all diabetic medications by KD week 3
  5. 4NA not available