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Table 1 Overview of mitochondrial biosynthetic enzymes important in cancer

From: Mitochondria as biosynthetic factories for cancer proliferation

  Cancer type (according to primary site)
Blood, bone, or lymph Brain Breast Colon Kidney Liver Lung Stomach Ovarian Pancreas Prostate Skin
TCA cycle, anaplerosis, and AcCoA metabolism
Pyruvate carboxylase       
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex       
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (activity or mutation)     
Succinate dehydrogenase (mutation)             
Fumarate hydratase (mutation)             
Glutaminase and/or glutamate dehydrogenase     
Glutamine synthetase            
Amino acid metabolism
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase    
Proline oxidase
Aspartate transaminase             
Alanine transaminase          
Nucleotide biosynthesis
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase      
Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase  
  1. Cancers in which three or more mitochondrial enzymes have been studied and found to be differentially regulated (or mutated, as indicated) in cancers vs. control groups are included. Dysregulation of each enzyme was demonstrated in clinical tumors samples, animal models, or cell lines at the levels of genes, mRNA, protein, metabolites, and/or flux.