Ketone bodies induce metabolic alterations in pancreatic cancer cell lines. S2-013 (A) and Capan1 (B) cells were treated with different doses of ketone bodies for 24 h, and glucose uptake was determined by performing 3H-2DG uptake assay. Bars represent counts normalized with cell number and plotted relative to control. Lactate release was determined by colorimetric assay using culture medium of S2-013 (C) and Capan1 (D) cells treated with different concentrations of NaHB and LiAcAc for 24 h. Values were normalized with total cell number and represented relative to controls. S2-013 (E) and Capan1 (F) cells were treated with indicated concentrations of ketone bodies for 24 h, and glutamine uptake was determined by performing tritiated Glutamine, l-[3,4-3H(N)] uptake assays. Counts were normalized with cell number and plotted relative to control. ATP levels in S2-013 (G) and Capan1 (H) cells post 24-h treatment with ketone bodies were determined by performing ATP bioluminescence assays. Values were normalized to total protein concentration and represented relative to control. Reactive oxygen species level of S2-013 (I) and Capan1 (J) cells under treatment with ketone bodies was determined by utilizing a fluorescence probe, dihydroethidium (DHE), and fluorescence intensity normalized to cell count was plotted. Values represented are mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.